If you are having problems urinating, your doctor may use tests to see if you have an enlarged prostate (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia). This condition is the most common cause of urination problems.

Tests include:

Digital Rectal Examination: Here doctor inserts a gloved finger into your rectum to feel your prostate gland. Some prostate tumors can be found this way.

PSA test

To measure the levels of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in your blood. A higher level of PSA may be a sign of an enlargement, infection, or cancer of the prostate. If it's possible that an infection is raising your PSA, you may first have 4 to 6 weeks of antibiotics. Your doctor may suggest a second PSA test before thinking about doing a biopsy.

Transrectal Ultrasound

In which the doctor inserts a probe into your rectum to check your prostate. The probe uses sound waves (ultrasound) to create a picture of the prostate.

If tests point to prostate cancer, your doctor may recommend a prostate biopsy, in which tissue is taken from the prostate and examined under a microscope. A biopsy is the only way to confirm whether you have prostate cancer.

Tests after diagnosis

After prostate cancer has been diagnosed, most men won't need more tests. But if the cancer appears to be a faster-growing type, more tests can be done to see if the cancer has spread. Tests may include Bone Scan, CT Scan or MRI.

Tests after treatment

After treatment for prostate cancer, you have regular checkups to check for any signs that the cancer has come back or spread. Tests include :

Blood tests. Different types of blood tests are used to see whether cancer has spread to your bones or liver.
Bone scan to check for bone damage caused by the cancer spreading.
CT scan or MRI to look for a new tumor.