Q1. What is Prostate?
Ans : The Prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system. It differs considerably amongst species anatomically, chemically, and physiologically. The function of the prostate is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance, that in humans usually constitutes roughly 30% of the volume of the semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid. Semen is made of alkaline overall with the secretions from the other contributing glands, the alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm. The prostatic fluid is expelled in the first ejaculate fractions, together with most of the spermatozoa.
Q2. What is Prostate Cancer?
Ans : Prostate Cancer is a common disease affecting older men. It usually takes years to become large enough to cause any problems. Sometimes, though it grows quickly. Many prostate cancers are found early, when the cancer cells are only in the prostate. When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate, it goes first to the lymph nodes in the pelvis, and then on to the bones, lungs, or other organs. About 16 out of 100 men suffer from prostate cancer, but only about 3 die because of it. That means about 97 out of 100 men die of some other diseases than Prostate Cancer. Rapid growth of cell in Prostate Gland is the prostate cancer. The prostate usually gets larger as you age. Having an enlarged prostate (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or BPH) is very common among older men and doesn't increase your chance of getting prostate cancer. But an enlarged prostate is sometimes caused by prostate cancer instead of BPH.
Q3. How does Prostate Cancer occur?
Ans : Prostate Cancer generally occurs in men beyond middle age and is uncommon in men under 45 years old. The exact cause of Prostate Cancer is unknown. but in some cases it may run in families. It is becoming more common in the developed world. Men who eat a high-fat diet or who are black may have an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may arise from an imbalance of certain body chemicals, called growth factors that control the growth and division of cells in the prostate gland.
Q4. What are the symptoms of Prostate Cancer?
Ans : Prostate Cancer usually does not cause symptoms in early stages. When there are symptoms, they may include :
Urinary problems, such as :
● not being able to urinate at all.
● having a hard time starting or stopping the flow of urine.
● having to urinate often, especially at night.
● having pain or burning during urination.
● Difficulty having an erection.
● Blood in your urine or semen.
● Deep and frequent pain in lower back, belly, hip, or pelvis.
Q5. How is Prostate Cancer diagnosed?
Ans : The only test that can fully confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a Biopsy, the removal of small pieces of the prostate for microscopic examination. However, prior to a biopsy, less invasive testing can be conducted.
There are also several other tests that can be used to gather more information about the prostate and the urinary tract. Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) may allow a doctor to detect prostate abnormalities.
Cystoscopy shows the urinary tract from inside the bladder, using a thin, flexible camera tube inserted down the urethra.Transrectal ultrasonography creates a picture of the prostate using sound waves from a probe in the rectum.
Q6. Is there any routine test to diagnose Prostate Cancer?
Ans : Following are the routine tests for prostate cancer.
Digital Rectal Examination : Here doctor inserts a gloved finger into your rectum to feel your prostate gland. Some prostate tumors can be found this way.
PSA Test : To measure the levels of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in your blood. A higher level of PSA may be a sign of an enlargement, infection, or cancer of the prostate. If it's possible that an infection is raising your PSA, you may first have 4 to 6 weeks of antibiotics. Your doctor may suggest a second PSA test before thinking about doing a biopsy.
Transrectal Ultrasound : in which the doctor inserts a probe into your rectum to check your prostate. The probe uses sound waves (ultrasound) to create a picture of the prostate.
If tests point to prostate cancer, your doctor may recommend a prostate biopsy, in which tissue is taken from the prostate and examined under a microscope. A biopsy is the only way to confirm whether you have prostate cancer.
Q7. Can Prostate Cancer be prevented?
Ans : Following are the possible prevention for Prostate Cancer.
Diet and lifestyle
The data on the relationship between diet and prostate cancer is poor. There is little if any evidence to support an association between trans fat, saturated fat and carbohydrate intake and risk of prostate cancer. Evidence regarding the role of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing prostate cancer does not suggest that they reduce the risk of prostate cancer, although research work in going on for more in details. Vitamin supplements appear to have no effect and some may increase the risk. High calcium intake has been linked to advanced prostate Cancer. Consuming fish may lower prostate cancer deaths but does not appear to affect its occurrence. Some evidence supports lower rates of prostate cancer with a vegetarian diet. There is some tentative evidence for foods containing lycopene and selenium. Diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, soybeans and other legumes may be associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer, especially more advanced cancers. Men who do regular work out, may have a slightly lower risk, especially vigorous activity and the risk of advanced prostate cancer.
In those who are being regularly screened 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (Finasteride and Dutasteride) reduce the overall risk of being diagnosed with Prostate Cancer. However, there is insufficient data to determine if they have an effect on the risk of death and may increase the chance of more serious cases.
If you are having problems urinating, your doctor may use tests to see if you have an enlarged prostate (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia). This condition is the most common cause of urination problems.
Q8. How can Prostate Cancer be screened?
Ans : Screening for Prostate Cancer involves checking for signs of the disease when there are no symptoms. It may be done with the PSA test. And while it's important to have regular health checkups, experts disagree on whether PSA test should be used to routinely screen men for prostate cancer. Testing could lead you to have cancer treatments that you don't need. Hence you must consult doctor, ask about your risk for prostate cancer and discuss the pros and cons of PSA testing.
Q9. Why PSA Test is done?
Ans : The Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test is done to:
screen men for prostate cancer. Since other common medical conditions, such as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Prostatitis, can cause high PSA levels, a prostate biopsy may be done if your doctor is concerned about signs of prostate cancer.
Check if cancer may be present when results from other tests, such as a digital rectal exam, are not normal. A PSA test does not diagnose cancer, but it can be used along with other tests to determine if cancer is present.
Watch prostate cancer during active surveillance or other treatment. If PSA levels increase, the cancer may be growing or spreading. PSA is usually not present in a man who has had his prostate gland removed. A PSA level that rises after prostate removal may mean the cancer has returned or has spread.
Q10. What are points to be taken care of before treatment of prostate cancer?
Ans : Choosing treatment for Prostate Cancer can be confusing. Any treatment can cause serious side effects.
Your treatment decision will depend on :
● Any serious health problems, including any urinary, bowel, or sexual function problems.
● PSA level.
● What kind of cancer cells you have. This is called the grade or Gleason score of your cancer.
● Most prostate cancer cells grow very slowly. But some type of cells grow quickly and spread to other areas of the body.
● How far your cancer has spread. This is called the stage of your cancer.
● The side effects of treatment.
● Your personal feelings and concerns.
● Treatment may be more successful if prostate cancer is found and treated early. Unlike many other cancers, prostate cancer is usually slow-growing. For most men, this slow growth means they have time to learn all they can before deciding whether to have treatment or which treatment to have.
Q11. What the types of treatment of Prostate Cancer?
Ans : Types of treatment for prostate cancer include:
● Active surveillance. This is a treatment choice to learn more for any man who has low-risk cancer that has not spread (early stage).
● Surgery to remove the cancer by removing the prostate gland. This operation is called a Prostatectomy.
● Radiation treatment, which include external and internal radiation. These treatments have been improved with newer technologies that reduce side effects and other problems caused by radiation.
● Hormone therapy, also called Androgen Deprivation Therapy or ADT.
Q12. What is Prostectomy?
Ans : Prostectomy is the various surgical intervention for treatment of Enlarged (Benign) Prostate or Prostate Cancer. Until recently, men with prostate cancer had few prostate surgery choices. Historically, the only prostate surgery option was open prostatectomy, involving large incision and post-operative side effects. Using this procedure, the entire cancerous prostate was removed with risk of excessive blood loss, post-operative infections, long hospital stays, and considerable pain. Following open prostatectomy, patientís activity was limited and often resulted in a loss of bladder control and sexual function after prostate surgery due to severance of the delicate plexus of nerves around the prostate gland. This was avoided to a large extent by Laparoscopic surgery avoiding large incision.
In the recent past, there has been revolutionary improvement in medical surgical technology with great impact on prostate cancer treatment and prostatectomy. The most famous Robotic Prostatectomy available today involves the da Vinci Surgical System, manufactured by Intuitive Surgical. Robotic Prostatectomy is gaining popularity as a less traumatic and minimally invasive prostate cancer treatment. The da Vinci robotic prostatectomy enables surgeons to overcome many of the shortcomings of both open prostatectomy and laparoscopic prostatectomy.
Q13. What is Robotic Prostectomy?
Ans : Robotic Prostatectomy, uses finely controlled robotic instruments to perform the prostatectomy safely, while enhancing patient recovery and outcome. Sitting at the Va Vinci surgical console, the surgeon performs robotic prostatectomy by controlling the device consisting of high-resolution cameras and micro-surgical instruments. Powered by state-of-the-art robotic technology, his hand movements are scaled, filtered, and seamlessly translated into precise movement of the endow wrist instruments.
Unlike laparoscopic surgery, Da Vinci Surgical System instruments used in robotic prostatectomy can turn in all directions with 90 degrees of articulation and 7 degrees of freedom. During robotic prostate surgery, the da Vinci robot provides the surgeon with improved visualization, dexterity, and precision compared with open or laparoscopic surgery, while enabling operation through 1 - 2 cm incisions. This allows surgeon to perform fine computer-controlled movements and a more precise and minimally invasive robotic prostatectomy. Robotic prostatectomy achieves the same or better prostate cancer treatment results than a surgeonís own hands in open or laparoscopic surgery.
Q14. What are advantages of Robotic Surgery?
Ans : Advantages of Robotic Surgery over other Prostate Surgeries are
● Reduced blood loss
● Fewer complications
● Faster Recovery
● Less Scarring
● Less Risk of Infection
● Significantly less pain
● Improved cosmoses
Q15. What are the tests to be carried out after Prostectomy?
Ans : After treatment for prostate cancer, you should have regular checkups to check for any signs that the cancer has come back or spread. Tests include:
● Blood tests. Different types of blood tests are used to see whether cancer has spread to your bones or liver.
● Bone scan to check for bone damage caused by the cancer spreading.
● CT scan or MRI to look for a new tumor.